Tag: Agricultural Wastes

Biomass Energy: Driving Rural Development

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Biomass energy offers attractive opportunities for rural development, and has got tremendous potential to rejuvenate the agricultural economy and community empowerment. The development of efficient biomass handling technology, improvement of agro-industrial systems and establishment of small, medium and large-scale biomass-based plants can play a major role in rural development.

Improvements in agricultural practices promises to increased biomass yields, reductions in cultivation costs, and improved environmental quality. Extensive research in the fields of synthetic biology, plant genetics, analytical techniques, remote sensing and geographic information systems (GIS) and IoT promised to help in increasing the energy potential of biomass feedstock.

Biomass-based microgrid developed by Husk Power Systems in Bihar (India)

Rural areas are the preferred hunting ground for the development of biomass energy sector worldwide. By making use of various biological and thermal processes (anaerobic digestion/biogas, combustion, gasification, pyrolysis), agricultural wastes can be converted into biofuels, heat or electricity, and thus catalyzing sustainable development of rural areas economically, socially and environmentally.

There are many areas around the world where people still lack access to electricity and clean cooking fuel, and thus face enormous hardship in day-to-day lives. Biomass-based microgrids, clean cookstoves and biomass-based fuels can reduce ‘energy poverty’ commonly prevalent among remote and isolated communities.  To conclude, when a marginalized community is able to access reliable and cheap energy, it will lead to overall socio-economic growth, poverty alleviation, youth empowerment and sustainable development.

For more information, please email Salman Zafar on salman@cleantechloops.com or salman@ecomena.org

Thermal Processing of Agricultural Wastes

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Agricultural wastes are highly important sources of biomass fuels for both the domestic and industrial sectors. Availability of primary residues for energy application is usually low since collection is difficult and they have other uses as fertilizer, animal feed etc. However secondary residues are usually available in relatively large quantities at the processing site and may be used as captive energy source for the same processing plant involving minimal transportation and handling cost.

Agricultural wastes encompasses all agricultural wastes such as straw, stem, stalk, leaves, husk, shell, peel, pulp, stubble, etc. which come from cereals (rice, wheat, maize or corn, sorghum, barley, millet), cotton, groundnut, jute, legumes (tomato, bean, soy) coffee, coconut, cacao, tea, fruits (banana, mango, coco, cashew) and palm oil.

A wide range of thermal technologies exists to convert the energy stored in agricultural wastes to more useful forms of energy. These technologies can be classified according to the principal energy carrier produced in the conversion process. The major methods of thermal conversion are combustion in excess air, gasification in reduced air, and pyrolysis in the absence of air.

Conventional combustion technologies raise steam through the combustion of biomass. This steam may then be expanded through a conventional turbo-alternator to produce electricity. Co-firing or co-combustion of agricultural wastes with coal and other fossil fuels can provide a short-term, low-risk, low-cost option for producing renewable energy while simultaneously reducing the use of fossil fuels. Co-firing has the major advantage of avoiding the construction of new, dedicated, biomass power plant.

Gasification of agricultural wastes takes place in a restricted supply of oxygen and occurs through initial devolatilization of the biomass, combustion of the volatile material and char, and further reduction to produce a fuel gas rich in carbon monoxide and hydrogen. This combustible gas has a lower calorific value than natural gas but can still be used as fuel for boilers, for engines, and potentially for combustion turbines after cleaning the gas stream of tars and particulates. Biomass power systems using gasification has followed two divergent pathways, which are a function of the scale of operations. At sizes much less than 1MW, the preferred technology combination today is a moving bed gasifier and ICE combination, while at scales much larger than 10 MW, the combination is of a fluidized bed gasifier and a gas turbine.

Pyrolysis enables agricultural residues to be converted to a combination of solid char, gas and a liquid bio-oil. Pyrolysis technologies are generally categorized as “fast” or “slow” according to the time taken for processing the feed into pyrolysis products. Bio-oil can act as a liquid fuel or as a feedstock for chemical production. A range of bio-oil production processes are under development, including fluid bed reactors, ablative pyrolysis, entrained flow reactors, rotating cone reactors, and vacuum pyrolysis.

For more information, please email Salman Zafar on salman@cleantechloops.com or salman@ecomena.org

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